Basic Concepts

Understanding the fundamentals: Discover the basic concepts of our project

Valuation method relied on secondary data used to estimate nonmarket economic values by transferring available information from original studies already completed.

A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value.

A business model canvas is a model that describes all the aspects of the business context of an individual company necessary for achieving profitability, namely the value proposition, the essential resources, and critical activities, the customer relationships, channels, customer segments, cost structures, and revenue streams.

Business model innovation can be defined as “the discovery of a fundamentally different business model in an existing business” (Markides, 2006, p. 20) or as “the search for new business logics of the firm and new ways to create and capture value for its stakeholders” (Casadesus-Masanell and Zhu, 2013, p. 464).

Co-design is a well-established approach to creative practice, particularly within the public sector. It has its roots in the participatory design techniques developed in Scandinavia in the 1970s. Co-design is often used as an umbrella term for participatory, co-creation, and open design processes[1].

Growing different crops in the same field in a planned sequence to improve soil health and crop yields.

All the non-material, normally non-rival, and non-consumptive outputs of ecosystems (biotic and abiotic) that affect people’s physical and mental states.

(procedure of determining the) aggregate willingness to pay in monetary terms for the goods and flows of services provided by an ecosystem. It reflects individual preferences, needs, and perceptions.

Generated functions, processes, and attributes that result in perceived or actual negative impacts on human well-being.

Positive contributions that ecosystems make to human wellbeing.

Measurable attribute that shows what a situation is like.

Methodology for assessing environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the life cycle of a commercial product, process, or service.

The economic value of environmental goods and services (ecosystem services) which are traded in markets. It reflects how much people actually pay for them.

The economic value of changes in the availability or quality of goods and services that are not intended to be traded in the market.

All nutritional, non-nutritional material, and energetic outputs from living systems and abiotic outputs (including water).

Agricultural practices that increase soil and ecosystem health. Some regenerative methods are cover crops, conservation tillage, crop rotation, agroforestry, holistic grazing, and water infiltration structures.

All the ways in which living organisms can mediate or moderate the ambient environment that affects human health, safety, or comfort, together with abiotic equivalents.

Technological and social innovation – including new strategies, concepts, ideas, institutions, and organizations – that enhance the capacity of social-ecological systems to generate bundles of essential ecosystem services. These can improve the ability to learn from, respond to, and manage environmental feedback from dynamic ecosystems (source).

Socio-technical transitions can be defined as the multi-dimensional shift from one socio-technical system to another involving technological and social changes that are intrinsically linked in a feedback loop (Geels, 2005).

The variety of living organisms in the soil, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and earthworms, among others.

Change in the soil health status resulting in a diminished capacity of the ecosystem to provide goods and services for its beneficiaries.

Measurable physical, chemical, and biological attributes related to functional soil processes and can be used to evaluate soil health status as affected by management and climate change. They must correlate well with ecosystem processes, integrate soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and processes, be accessible to many users, be sensitive to management and climate, be components of existing databases, and be interpretable.

Ability of the soil to sustain the productivity, diversity, and ecosystem services of terrestrial environments.

Process that provokes soil degradation. Examples of soil threats are acidification, compaction, contamination (pollution), the decline in soil organic matter, decline in soil biodiversity, desertification, erosion, flooding and water-logging, landslides, and salinization.

Numerical value of ecosystem service contributions by soil.

Sustainable business models aim at employing proactive multi-stakeholder management, innovation, and a long-term perspective to meet sustainability goals. Sustainable business models, therefore, have been effectively contributing to reducing the harmful effects of business activities on the environment and society by providing solutions to help firms meet their economic and sustainability goals simultaneously

A model for exploring sustainability-oriented business model innovation. It extends the original business model canvas by adding two layers: an environmental layer based on a lifecycle perspective and a social layer based on a stakeholder perspective.

The value chain describes the full range of activities that are required to bring a product or service from conception through the different phases of production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various producer services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use.

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